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Definition

Cole, M. et al. (1978) The Role of Play in Development (Book Section)

Abstract:

The great Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky has long been recognized as a pioneer in developmental psychology. But his theory of development has never been well understood in the West. Mind in Society corrects much of this misunderstanding. Carefully edited by a group of outstanding Vygotsky scholars, the book presents a unique selection of Vygotsky's important essays.

Date:
January 1978
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
92-104
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Peers play
  • Pretend play
  • Self-regulation
  • Social play
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Dignath, C. et al. (2008) How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively? (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Recently, research has increasingly focused on fostering self-regulated learning amongst young children. To consider this trend, this article presents the results of a differentiated meta-analysis of 48 treatment comparisons resulting from 30 articles on enhancing self-regulated learning amongst primary school students. Based on recent models of self-regulated learning, which consider motivational, as well as cognitive, and metacognitive aspects [Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: Where we are today. International Journal of Educational research, 31(6), 445–457], the effects of self-regulated learning on academic achievement, on cognitive and metacognitive strategy application, as well as on motivation were analyzed. As the results show, self-regulated learning training programmes proved to be effective, even at primary school level. Subsequent analysis tested for the effects of several moderator variables, which consisted of study features and training characteristics. Regarding factors that concern the content of the treatment, the impact of the theoretical background that underlies the intervention was tested, as well as the type of cognitive, metacognitive, or motivational strategy which were instructed, and if group work was used as instruction method. Training context related factors, which were included in the analyses consisted of students’ grade level, the length of the training, if teachers or researchers directed the intervention, as well as the school subject in which context the training took place. Following the results of these analyses, a list with the most effective training characteristics was provided.

Date:
January 2008
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
3
Page/s:
101-129
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Meta-analysis
  • Metacognition
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s:

Esseily, R. et al. (2016) Humour production may enhance observational learning of a new tool-use action in 18-month-old infants (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Many studies have shown that making children laugh enhances certain cognitive capacities such as attention, motivation, perception and/or memory, which in turn enhance learning. However, no study thus far has investigated whether laughing has an effect on learning earlier in infancy. The goal of this study was to see whether using humour with young infants in a demonstration of a complex tool-use task can enhance their learning. Fifty-three 18-month-old infants participated in this study and were included either in a humorous or a control demonstration group. In both groups infants observed an adult using a tool to retrieve an out-of-reach toy. What differed between groups was that in the humorous demonstration group, instead of playing with the toy, the adult threw it on the floor immediately after retrieval. The results show that infants who laughed at the demonstration in the humorous demonstration group reproduced significantly more frequent target actions than infants who did not laugh and those in the control group. This effect is discussed with regard to individual differences in terms of temperament and social capacities as well as positive emotion and dopamine release.

Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
30
Page/s:
817-825
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Humour
  • Learning
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Fisher, K. et al. (2013) Taking Shape: Supporting Preschoolers' Acquisition of Geometric Knowledge Through Guided Play (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Shape knowledge, a key aspect of school readiness, is part of early mathematical learning. Variations in how children are exposed to shapes may affect the pace of their learning and the nature of their shape knowledge. Building on evidence suggesting that child-centered, playful learning programs facilitate learning more than other methods, 4- to 5-year-old children (N = 70) were taught the properties of four geometric shapes using guided play, free play, or didactic instruction. Results revealed that children taught shapes in the guided play condition showed improved shape knowledge compared to the other groups, an effect that was still evident after 1 week. Findings suggest that scaffolding techniques that heighten engagement, direct exploration, and facilitate “sense-making,” such as guided play, undergird shape learning.

Date:
January 2013
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
n/a–n/a
Synonyms:
  • Academic outcomes
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Experimental
  • Free play
  • Learning
  • Playful learning
  • Pre-academic skills
  • Guided-play
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Foundation, . (2014) Cultures of Creativity, nurturing creative mindsets (Video Recording)

Abstract:

Cultures of Creativity, nurturing creative mindsets from LEGO Foundation on Vimeo.

Creativity is one of the most important competencies of the 21st Century. Yet, the puzzling question is how to nurture it? Children are creative from the day they are born and the film describes how to support creativity across cultures. The content is based on the report, Cultures of Creativity, published by the LEGO Foundation, 2013. Authors: David Gauntlett and Bo Stjerne Thomsen and 20 leading international experts on play, learning and creativity. Read more on LEGOFoundation.com

Author/s:
Date:
January 2014
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Creativity
  • Cultural context
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Free play
  • Learning
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Fromberg, D. et al. (2006) Play from Birth to Twelve (Book)

Abstract:

In light of recent standards-based and testing movements, the issue of play in childhood has taken on increased meaning for educational professionals and social scientists. This second edition of Play From Birth to Twelve offers comprehensive coverage of what we now know about play, its guiding principles, its dynamics and importance in early learning. These up-to-date essays, written by some of the most distinguished experts in the field, help students explore:
all aspects of play, including new approaches not yet covered in the literature
how teachers in various classroom situations set up and guide play to facilitate learning
how play is affected by societal violence, media reportage, technological innovations and other contemporary issues
which areas of play have been studied adequately and which require further research.

Date:
January 2006
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Cultural context
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Games with rules
  • Humour
  • Language
  • Learning
  • Object play
  • Outdoor play
  • Peers play
  • Physical play
  • Pretend play
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional

Gray, P. et al. (1984) When Play Is Learning: A School Designed for Self-Directed Education (Journal Article)

Abstract:
Author/s:
Date:
January 1984
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
65
Page/s:
608-611
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Playful learning
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Harkness, S. et al. (2004) Asian and Euro-American parents' ethnotheories of play and learning: Effects on preschool children's home routines and school behaviour (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Asian and Euro-American parents of preschool-aged children were interviewed concerning their beliefs about the nature and purpose of play; they also completed two questionnaires and a diary of their children's daily activities. The children's teachers were interviewed and provided information about the behaviour of the children in preschool. The Euro-American parents were found to believe that play is an important vehicle for early development, while the Asian parents saw little developmental value in it. On the other hand, the Asian parents believed more strongly than the Euro-Americans in the importance of an early start in academic training for their children. These contrasting beliefs were instantiated in parental practices at home regarding the use of time and the provision of toys. At preschool, the Asian children were similar to the Euro-Americans on a standardised behavioural measure but they were described by their teachers as initially more academically advanced than the Euro-American children, and as showing different patterns of play and social interaction. The implications of these results for home–school relations and the design of early education programmes are discussed.

Date:
January 2004
Volume:
28
Page/s:
97-104
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Free play
  • Learning
Relevant age group/s:

Hart, S. (2016) Inclusion, Play and Empathy (Book)

Abstract:

Contributions from early childhood educators, teachers, psychologists, music therapists, occupational therapists, and psychotherapists highlight the crucial role that early relationships and interactions in group settings play in the development of children's personal, emotional and social skills. The book features the latest research and methods for successfully encouraging the development of these skills in groups of children aged 4-12. It explores how play within children's groups can be facilitated in order to foster emotional and empathic capacities, how to overcome common challenges to inclusion in schools and introduces practical, creative approaches to cultivating a sense of unity and team spirit in children's groups.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Creativity
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Games with rules
  • Learning
  • Mental health
  • Musical play
  • Peers play
  • Physical play
  • Self-regulation
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional
  • Well-being outcomes
Research discipline:

Johnson, J. et al. (2015) The Handbook of the Study of Play (Book)

Abstract:

The Handbook of the Study of Play brings together in two volumes thinkers whose diverse interests at the leading edge of scholarship and practice define the current field. Because play is an activity that humans have shared across time, place, and culture and in their personal developmental timelines—and because this behavior stretches deep into the evolutionary past—no single discipline can lay claim to exclusive rights to study the subject. Thus this handbook features the thinking of evolutionary psychologists; ethologists and biologists; neuroscientists; developmental psychologists; psychotherapists and play therapists; historians; sociologists and anthropologists; cultural psychologists; philosophers; theorists of music, performance, and dance; specialists in learning and language acquisition; and playground designers. Together, but out of their varied understandings, the incisive contributions to The Handbook take on vital questions of educational policy, of literacy, of fitness, of the role of play in brain development, of spontaneity and pleasure, of well-being and happiness, of fairness, and of the fuller realization of the self. These volumes also comprise an intellectual history, retrospective looks at the great thinkers who have made possible the modern study of play.

Date:
January 2015
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
II
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Games with rules
  • Learning
  • Mental health
  • Musical play
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Physical play
  • Playground
  • Well-being outcomes
Relevant age group/s: