This brief relates to the second seminar in a series of three around the theme of ‘The Educated Brain’. Each research seminar includes talks from leading researchers and roundtable discussions about the links between research and policy and practice. Presentations at the second seminar built on discussions from seminar 1 by focusing on school years from age 8. Academic presentations covered: inequalities in educational outcomes, researching the adolescent brain, the role of rhythm in cognitive development, transition to secondary school and bilingualism. The keynote lecture delivered by Professor Charles Nelson reported on a body of work investigating the impact of early neglect on children and institutional care.