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Archer, C. et al. (2015) Measuring the Quality of Movement-Play in Early Childhood Education Settings: Linking Movement-Play and Neuroscience (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This article explores the links between neuroscience research, movement, and neurological dysfunction in relation to young children's learning and development. While policymakers have recognised the importance of early development the role of movement has been overlooked. A small scale study was undertaken in four early years settings in a London Borough in order to investigate whether an intervention resulted in improved movement experiences for children. This is the first study to assess the quality of movement-play using a newly developed measuring scale. Results showed that an intervention does result in improved movement experiences for young children. Consistently enhanced results were found in relation to the vital role of the adult at the two intervention settings. For Vygotsky the adult role is critical to the quality of play and learning for the child (Siraj-Blatchford 2009). There is scope for a larger scale piece of research spread across different sectors in order to further test the validity and reliability of the scale.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2015
Volume:
23
Page/s:
21-42
Synonyms:
  • Physical play
  • Play assessment
  • Rough and tumble
  • Teacher/caregiver play

Bateson, P. et al. (2014) Playfulness, Ideas, and Creativity: A Survey (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This article investigates whether self-reports about playfulness are related to self-reports about creativity and the alternate uses of objects. An on-line survey was conducted of how people think about themselves. One thousand, five hundred and thirty-six people completed the survey. They were asked whether a variety of statements were very characteristic of themselves through to whether they were very uncharacteristic. Respondents were then asked to offer alternative uses for 2 different objects. Those people who characterized themselves as being playful clearly thought of themselves as being creative. The self-reports of their playfulness, creativity, and innovation were positively correlated with each other and were validated with their suggested uses for 2 different objects. Personality measures were derived from the respondents' self-assessments. On the openness scale, the measure was positively correlated with the respondents' assessments of their own playfulness and with the number of alternative uses for two objects.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2014
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
26
Page/s:
219-222
Synonyms:
  • Correlational
  • Creativity
  • Playfulness
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Gibson, J. et al. (2011) Quantifying peer interactions for research and clinical use: The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Direct observation of peer relating is potentially a sensitive and ecologically valid measure of child social functioning, but there has been a lack of standardised methods. The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation (MIPO) was developed as a practical yet rigorous assessment of this kind for 5–11 year olds. We report on the initial reliability and validity of the MIPO and its ability to distinguish social impairments within different psychopathologies. We observed 144 clinically referred children aged 5;00–11;11 (mean 8.8) years with Externalising (n=44), Internalising (n=19), Autism Spectrum Disorders (n=39) or Specific Language Impairment (n=42), and 44 class-controls, in naturalistic playground interaction. Observers, blind to clinical diagnosis, completed the MIPO and the teacher checklist from the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). MIPO items showed high internal consistency (alpha=.924; all ‘alpha if item deleted’ values>.91), inter-observer reliability (mean κw=.77) and test–retest stability (over 2 weeks; mean κw=.58). MIPO totals showed convergence with SSRS (n=68, rs=.78, p<.01) and excellent discrimination between case and control (sensitivity=0.75 and specificity=0.88, AUC=.897). Externalising, Autistic Spectrum and Language Impaired groups showed distinct profiles of MIPO impairment consistent with theory:Internalising disorders less so. 65.3% of clinical cases were classified accurately for primary diagnosis. The MIPO shows reliability and validity as a measure of children's social functioning relevant in developmental research and as a clinical tool to aid differential diagnosis and intervention planning.

Date:
January 2011
Volume:
32
Page/s:
2458-2466
Synonyms:
  • Atypical development
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Peers play
  • Play assessment
  • Playground
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Hoicka, E. et al. (2016) Parents Produce Explicit Cues That Help Toddlers Distinguish Joking and Pretending (Journal Article)

Abstract:

While separate pieces of research found parents offer toddlers cues to express that they are (1) joking and (2) pretending, and that toddlers and preschoolers understand intentions to (1) joke and (2) pretend, it is not yet clear whether parents and toddlers consider joking and pretending to be distinct concepts. This is important as distinguishing these two forms of non-literal acts could open a gateway to understanding the complexities of the non-literal world, as well as the complexities of intentions in general. Two studies found parents offer explicit cues to help 16- to 24-month-olds distinguish pretending and joking. Across an action play study (n = 25) and a verbal play study (n = 40) parents showed more disbelief and less belief through their actions and language when joking versus pretending. Similarly, toddlers showed less belief through their actions, and older toddlers showed less belief through their language. Toddlers' disbelief could be accounted for by their response to parents' language and actions. Thus, these studies reveal a mechanism by which toddlers learn to distinguish joking and pretending. Parents offer explicit cues to distinguish these intentions, and toddlers use these cues to guide their own behaviors, which in turn allows toddlers to distinguish these intentional contexts.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2016
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
40
Page/s:
941-971
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Humour
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Pretend play
  • Social cognition
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Whitebread, D. (1996) The development of children's strategies on an inductive reasoning task (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This paper reports an analysis of children's cognitive strategies on an inductive reasoning task, by means of a new methodological approach. A sample of 72 children aged 6, 8 and 10 were presented with three different versions of a multidimensional discrimination learning task, which was presented in such a way as to ‘optimise’ their performance. Their responses were analysed in terms of 10 Strategy Components, scores on which were analysed by means of cluster analysis. Overall, the children performed at more sophisticated levels than previously found. Five Strategy Clusters representing distinct patterns of strategic behaviour were revealed. A developmental sequence was established between these patterns of strategic behaviour and, significantly, two alternative developmental routes relating to strategic style. While the results support a complex model of strategy construction, as revealed by recent research, the distinct nature of the Strategy Clusters points to a discontinuous model of strategy development. This evidence of children's differing abilities to construct and select appropriate strategies in relation to a novel task strongly supports the educational imperative of encouraging children's early use and awareness of cognitive strategies.

Author/s:
Date:
January 1996
Volume:
66
Page/s:
1-21
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Problem-solving
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Whitebread, D. et al. (2005) Developing independent learning in the early years (Journal Article)

Abstract:

This paper describes a research project currently running in Cambridgeshire Foundation Stage settings exploring the development of independent learning in young children. In the first year the project has explored the work of 16 practitioners working with 3–5 year old children, using a range of methodologies including questionnaires, interviews and reflective dialogues (based on video recordings of particular classroom episodes), reflective journals and child assessment checklists. The development of the range of abilities involved in becoming a self-regulating, independent learner has been conceptualised in terms of research and theory relating to the development of ‘metacognitive’ abilities and dispositions. It is argued that, while the development of independent learning is generally accepted as an important educational aim, current trends in Primary education which have encouraged a more teacher-directed approach, are not helpful. The paper advances a model of independent learning which is based on developmental psychological research, and presents interim findings from the project which suggest that even our youngest children are capable of considerable independence in their learning. While particular pedagogical techniques and approaches need to be developed, many of these are well-established and researched, and can be shown to be effective in fostering independent learning abilities within the Primary school context.

Date:
January 2005
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
33
Page/s:
40-50
Synonyms:
  • Cross-sectional
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Metacognition
  • Pedagogy
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s:

Whitebread, D. et al. (2007) Development of Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning in Young Children: Role of Collaborative and Peer-Assisted Learning (Journal Article)

Abstract:

The authors present findings from a large 2-year study exploring the development of self-regulatory and metacognitive abilities in young children (aged 3 to 5 years) in educational naturalistic settings in the United Kingdom (English Nursery and Reception classrooms). Three levels of analysis were conducted based on observational codings of categories of metacognitive and self-regulatory behaviors. These analyses supported the view that, within the 3- to 5-year age range, there was extensive evidence of metacognitive behaviors that occurred most frequently during learning activities that were initiated by the children, involved them in working in pairs or small groups, unsupervised by adults, and that involved extensive collaboration and talk (i.e., learning contexts that might be characterized as peer-assisted learning). Relative to working individually or
in groups with adult support, children in this age range working in unsupervised small groups showed more evidence of metacognitive monitoring and control. Relative to children in supervised groups, they also showed more evidence of "other" and "shared" regulation. The implications for research,
theory, and educational practice are discussed.

Date:
January 2007
Volume:
6
Page/s:
433-455
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Learning
  • Metacognition
  • Self-regulation
Relevant age group/s: