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Aureli, T. et al. (2015) Behavioral and facial thermal variations in 3-to 4-month-old infants during the Still-Face Paradigm (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Behavioral and facial thermal responses were recorded in twelve 3- to 4-month-old infants during the Still-Face Paradigm (SFP). As in the usual procedure, infants were observed in a three-step, face-to-face interaction: a normal interaction episode (3 min); the "still-face" episode in which the mother became unresponsive and assumed a neutral expression (1 min); a reunion episode in which the mother resumed the interaction (3 min). A fourth step that consisted of a toy play episode (5 min) was added for our own research interest. We coded the behavioral responses through the Infant and Caregiver Engagement Phases system, and recorded facial skin temperature via thermal infrared (IR) imaging. Comparing still-face episode to play episode, the infants' communicative engagement decreased, their engagement with the environment increased, and no differences emerged in self-regulatory and protest behaviors. We also found that facial skin temperature increased. For the behavioral results, infants recognized the interruption of the interactional reciprocity caused by the still-face presentation, without showing upset behaviors. According to autonomic results, the parasympathetic system was more active than the sympathetic, as usually happens in aroused but not distressed situations. With respect to the debate about the causal factor of the still-face effect, thermal data were consistent with behavioral data in showing this effect as related to the infants' expectations of the nature of the social interactions being violated. Moreover, as these are associated to the infants' subsequent interest in the environment, they indicate the thermal IR imaging as a reliable technique for the detection of physiological variations not only in the emotional system, as indicated by research to date, but also in the attention system. Using this technique for the first time during the SFP allowed us to record autonomic data in a more ecological manner than in previous studies.

Date:
January 2015
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
6
Page/s:
1586
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Exploratory play
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Play with Mother
  • Self-regulation
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Becker, B. (2014) How Often Do You Play with Your Child? The Influence of Parents' Cultural Capital on the Frequency of Familial Activities from Age Three to Six (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Many studies have demonstrated a positive association between familial activities (e.g. reading to the child) and children's development in different domains. It is also well-known that social and ethnic differences exist regarding the frequencies of such activities. However, the mechanism behind these differences is less clear. This article analyses the role of parents' cultural capital as a mediating factor between families' social and ethnic background and the frequency of stimulating familial activities in early childhood. Using the data from the German longitudinal study "Preschool Education and Educational Careers among Migrant Children", it is shown that parents' cultural capital completely mediates the effect of mother's education and part of the ethnic origin effect. Additional longitudinal analyses reveal that the influence of parents' cultural capital changes over time and is most pronounced at the earliest measurement.

Author/s:
Date:
January 2014
Volume:
22
Page/s:
4-13
Synonyms:
  • Games with rules
  • Longitudinal
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Play with Mother
  • Socio-economic background
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Mireault, G. et al. (2015) Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N=37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6months, and more often and sooner at 7months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5months of age, parental affect influenced infants’ affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing.

Date:
January 2015
Volume:
136
Page/s:
30-41
Synonyms:
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Humour
  • Longitudinal
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Play with Mother
  • Social cognition
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline:

Nathan, P. et al. (2010) The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play (Book)

Abstract:

The role of play in human development has long been the subject of controversy. Despite being championed by many of the foremost scholars of the twentieth century, play has been dogged by underrepresentation and marginalization in literature across the scientific disciplines. The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play attempts to examine the development of children’s play through a rigorous and multidisciplinary approach. This book aims to reset the landscape of developmental science and makes a compelling case for the benefits of play.

Date:
January 2010
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
Page/s:
Synonyms:
  • Atypical development
  • Cultural context
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Games with rules
  • Object play
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Peers play
  • Physical play
  • Play assessment
  • Play with Mother
  • Pretend play
  • Rough and tumble
  • Social play
  • Social-emotional

Valentino, K. et al. (2011) Mother-child play and maltreatment: a longitudinal analysis of emerging social behavior from infancy to toddlerhood (Journal Article)

Abstract:

Mother-child play of maltreating and nonmaltreating families was analyzed when infants were 12 months old (Time 1), and 2 years old (Time 2), as a context to examine children's developing cognitive and social skills. At Time 1, infants from abusing families demonstrated less independent and more imitative behavior during play than did infants from neglecting and nonmaltreating families, suggesting a delay in emerging social behaviors. In this longitudinal follow-up, mother-child play was reassessed 1 year later (N = 78), with a focus on children's engagement in nonplay and pretend play and on children's abilities to initiate social exchanges and respond to parental requests. Play and social behavior were coded from semistructured and unstructured play paradigms at both time points. Maternal attention-directing behavior and limit setting also was assessed. At Time 2, children from abusing, neglecting, and nonmaltreating families did not differ in cognitive play complexity. However, children from abusing families engaged in less child-initiated play than did children from neglecting and nonmaltreating families, demonstrating less socially competent behavior. Longitudinal analyses revealed child initiated play at Time 2 was negatively associated with abuse and with maternal physical attention directing behavior at Time 1. Child negative reactivity at Time 2 was positively associated with Time 1 maternal physical behavior and child imitation and with Time 2 maternal controlling behavior. Implications for early intervention efforts are emphasized.

Date:
January 2011
Publisher or Journal:
Volume:
47
Page/s:
1280-1294
Synonyms:
  • Affective behaviour
  • Developmental outcomes
  • Longitudinal
  • Parent/Guardian play
  • Play with Mother
  • Pretend play
  • Social-emotional
Relevant age group/s:
Research discipline: